While a constant concern since the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) has been that easy monetary policies would cause surging inflation it simply hasn’t occurred. The absence of inflationary pressures is a good thing, as it means the global "sweet spot" of okay economic growth, with low interest rates and bond yields can continue. But what if we end up with sustained deflation? A renewed plunge in bond yields over the last year to record or near record lows is warning of just that.

December has seen falling consumer price levels in many countries and annual inflation rates are now just 0.8% in the US, -0.2% in Europe, 0.5% in the UK, 0.4% in Japan (after removing the impact of higher sales taxes) and 1.5% in China. In Australia, inflation looks likely to fall below the 2-3% target. In fact, as can be seen in the next chart the collapse in the proportion of countries with hyperinflation is now being matched by a steady advance in the proportion seeing deflation.

The fall of hyperinflation and rise of deflation

Source: Thomson Reuters, AMP Capital

The rise in deflationary pressures is now starting to generate more social interest with Google showing a rising trend in searches for the word “deflation” relative to “inflation” to levels last seen at the time of the GFC. See the next chart.

But what is deflation? how likely is a sustained period of deflation? and what does it all mean for investors?

Google search trends: inflation versus deflation

Source: Google Trends, AMP Capital

What is deflation?

Deflation refers to persistent and generalised price falls. It occurred in the 1800s, 1930s and the last 20 years in Japan.

Deflation is not unusual historically

Source: Global Financial Data, AMP Capital

Whether deflation is good or not depends on the circumstances in which it occurs. In the period 1870-1895 in the US, deflation occurred against the background of strong economic growth, reflecting rapid productivity growth and technological innovation. This can be called “good deflation”. Falling prices for electronic goods are an example of good deflation.

However, falling prices are not good if they are associated with falling wages, rising unemployment, falling asset prices and rising real debt burdens. For example, in the 1930s and more recently in Japan, deflation reflected economic collapse and rising unemployment made worse by the combination of high debt levels and falling asset prices. This was “bad deflation”.

In the current environment sustained deflation could cause problems. Falling wages and prices would make it harder to service debts. Lower nominal growth will mean less growth in public sector tax revenues making still high public debt levels harder to pay off. And when prices fall people put off decisions to spend and invest, which could threaten economic growth.

Deflation drivers

The decline in inflation globally has raised concerns we may see sustained deflation. Several factors are behind this:


Plenty of spare capacity globally = deflationary risks

Source: IMF, AMP Capital

Unless you are an energy producer, deflation flowing from lower oil prices is not a problem because it provides a boost to real spending power. However, the danger is that the plunge in inflation driven by the fall in oil prices will drive inflationary expectations down at a time when inflation is already weak leading to a greater risk of entrenched deflation.

Deflationary forces will also be felt in Australia as global prices fall. This may be partly offset by the lower $A pushing up import prices. However, as we have seen over the last year inflation has remained low despite the lower $A.

How likely is a sustained period of “bad deflation”?

The risks of deflation have clearly increased. However, notwithstanding a short term period of deflation in some countries, a sustained 1930s or Japanese style bout of bad deflation is still likely to be avoided:

More global monetary easing should help ensure global growth continues and in turn prevent a slide into sustained deflation. So our base case remains that global inflation remains low rather than collapsing into sustained deflation. Key to watch will be the success of the ECB and Bank of Japan in boosting their countries’ growth rates.

Implications for investors?

Were sustained deflation to take hold it would favour government bonds and cash over equities, property and corporate bonds for investors. As can be seen in the next chart low inflation is generally good for shares as it allows shares to trade on higher price to earnings multiples. But when inflation slips into deflation, it can be bad as it tends to go with poor growth and profits and as a result shares trade on lower PEs.

Low inflation can allow higher PEs, but not deflation

* Shows price to a 10 year trailing average of earnings (ie Shiller PE). Source: Global Financial Data, Bloomberg, AMP Capital

Some see gold doing well in a period of deflation, but I doubt this and more likely would see it falling further as demand for gold as an inflation hedge will evaporate in a deflationary world.

However, as discussed the most likely outcome is that inflation will remain low over the year ahead with improving growth helping it bottom but still significant spare capacity preventing much of a rise. This has several implications for investors.

First, the environment of low interest rates will remain in place for some time to come. The Fed may well delay its first rate hike till later this year and when it does move it will be gradual. Elsewhere, rate cuts are more likely including in Australia. This means continued low returns from cash and bank deposits.

Second, given the absence of significant monetary tightening a bond crash like we saw in 1994 remains as distant as ever. The most likely outcome is just low returns from government bonds reflecting record or near record low yields in many countries.

Bond yields at or near record lows

Source: Global Financial Data, AMP Capital

Third, the low interest rate and bond yield environment means that the chase for yield is likely to continue supporting commercial property, infrastructure and high yield shares.

Finally, as the generally easy global and Australian monetary environment continues it will help underpin further gains in growth assets like shares, albeit with more volatility.

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About the Author

Dr Shane Oliver, Head of Investment Strategy and Economics and Chief Economist at AMP Capital is responsible for AMP Capital's diversified investment funds. He also provides economic forecasts and analysis of key variables and issues affecting, or likely to affect, all asset markets.

Important note: While every care has been taken in the preparation of this article, AMP Capital Investors Limited (ABN 59 001 777 591, AFSL 232497) and AMP Capital Funds Management Limited (ABN 15 159 557 721, AFSL 426455) makes no representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of any statement in it including, without limitation, any forecasts. Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future performance. This article has been prepared for the purpose of providing general information, without taking account of any particular investor’s objectives, financial situation or needs. An investor should, before making any investment decisions, consider the appropriateness of the information in this article, and seek professional advice, having regard to the investor’s objectives, financial situation and needs. This article is solely for the use of the party to whom it is provided.